Functional groups have specific naming techniques which indicate their relative position and composition. Be sure to specify the number of the carbon on which the halogen appears.
Openstax Cnx Functional Group Functional Groups Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry
Number the parent chain starting from the highest priority group and add the substituent s alphabetically.
How to name compounds with functional groups. Take the full halogen s name drop the ending and add o. The middle part of the name or base name tells us about the number of carbons in the main chain of. Functional groups also play an important part in organic compound nomenclature.
For example iodine becomes iodo chlorine becomes chloro. Combining the names of the functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes provides a way to distinguish compounds. Since halogens are substituents rather than functional groups we include their name in the prefix.
Similarly a functional group. It is also noteworthy that if there is a functional group suffix and a substituent the functional group suffix gets the lowest possible number. The prefix contains information on the number of carbons while the suffix describes the functional groups.
Step 1 count the number of carbon atoms in the main chain to get the main part of the name. The table below summarizes a number of these functional groups. We will look at determining the name of the following compound.
When naming these compounds we need to indicate the type s of functional groups the number of functional groups and the positions of the functional groups that the compound contains. Ketones have names that end in one such as propanone or butanone. The second the beta carbon.
Ol for alcohols one for ketones ic for acids al for aldehydes etc. The atoms of a functional group are linked together and to the rest of the compound by covalent bonds. The nomenclature for these compounds is slightly different from previous exam ples in that the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain.
Remaining functional groups are known as the substituents and are named using the appropriate prefixes. The third the gamma carbon etc. For example alcohols have higher priority than amines and therefore when naming a compound containing these two functional groups the alcohol is designated with a suffix and gets the lower number.
The first carbon atom that attaches to the functional group is referred to as the alpha carbon. The specific names of organic compounds contain suffixes that tell us about the main functional groups present. In case of multiple functional groups in a compound one of the functional groups is chosen on the basis of the priority list and is referred to as the principal functional group.
The functional group is numbered and named as a substituent fig. The compound is named on the basis of that functional group.
Continue reading →